From bench to bedside: preclinical evaluation of a self-inactivating gammaretroviral vector for the gene therapy of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease
Mohammed A. Sadat
Kerstin B. Kaufmann
Nancy K. Pech
Jeffrey B. Travers
Juan D. Matute
Robert G. Presson Jr.
George E. Sandusky
Christof von Kalle
Mary C. Dinauer
- Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by impaired antimicrobial activity in phagocytic cells. As a monogenic disease affecting the hematopoietic system, CGD is amenable to gene therapy. Indeed in a phase I/II clinical trial, we demonstrated a transient resolution of bacterial and fungal infections. However, the therapeutic benefit was compromised by the occurrence of clonal dominance and malignant transformation demanding alternative vectors with equal efficacy but safety-improved features. In this work we have developed and tested a self-inactivating (SIN) gammaretroviral vector (SINfes.gp91s) containing a codon-optimized transgene (gp91(phox)) under the transcriptional control of a myeloid promoter for the gene therapy of the X-linked form of CGD (X-CGD). Gene-corrected cells protected X-CGD mice from Aspergillus fumigatus challenge at low vector copy numbers. Moreover, the SINfes.gp91s vector generates substantial amounts of superoxide in human cells transplanted into immunodeficient mice. In vitro genotoxicity assays and longitudinal high-throughput integration site analysis in transplanted mice comprising primary and secondary animals for 11 months revealed a safe integration site profile with no signs of clonal dominance.
Gentherapie der septischen Granulomatose: Chancen und Risiken : der Weg zur erfolgreichen Therapie einer angeborenen Immundefizienz
- Im Jahre 2004 sind am Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt zwei Patienten mit X-CGD gentherapeutisch behandelt worden. Nach einer initialen Phase mit Nachweis ausreichender Mengen Oxidase-positiver Zellen im Blut der Patienten und einer deutlichen klinischen Besserung vorbestehender Infektionsherde kam es zu einem Verlust der Transgenexpression durch epigenetische Veränderungen des viralen Promotors. Ferner entwickelte sich durch Insertionsmutagenese eine klonale Expansion in der Hämatopoese und schließlich ein myelodysplastisches Syndrom mit Monosomie 7 bei beiden Patienten. In der Zusammenschau mit anderen Gentherapiestudien zur X-CGD zeigt sich, dass bislang ein langanhaltendes Engraftment funktionierender genkorrigierter Zellen nur im Zusammenhang mit einer Insertionsmutagenese beobachtet wurde. Zukünftige gentherapeutische Strategien zur Behandlung der X-CGD müssen das Risiko einer Insertionsmutagenese minimieren und gleichzeitig die Effektivität des Engraftments genkorrigierter Zellen steigern. Dies soll durch den Einsatz von SIN-Vektoren sowie einer Intensivierung der Konditionierung der Patienten erreicht werden.
Genomic instability and myelodysplasia with monosomy 7 consequent to EVI1 activation after gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease
Marion Gabriele Ott
Adrian J. Thrasher
Christof von Kalle
- Gene-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can provide ample clinical benefits to subjects suffering from X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), a rare inherited immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent, often life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Here we report on the molecular and cellular events observed in two young adults with X-CGD treated by gene therapy in 2004. After the initial resolution of bacterial and fungal infections, both subjects showed silencing of transgene expression due to methylation of the viral promoter, and myelodysplasia with monosomy 7 as a result of insertional activation of ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1). One subject died from overwhelming sepsis 27 months after gene therapy, whereas a second subject underwent an allogeneic HSC transplantation. Our data show that forced overexpression of EVI1 in human cells disrupts normal centrosome duplication, linking EVI1 activation to the development of genomic instability, monosomy 7 and clonal progression toward myelodysplasia.
Die Analyse der Chemokin- und Zytokinsekretion als Ausdruck der systemischen Inflammation nach klinischer Leberteilresektion
Smoking and pregnancy : a scientometric analysis
- Smoking tobacco throughout pregnancy is one of the single most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes. If compared with other risk factors in the perinatal period, exposure to tobacco smoke is considered to be amongst the most harmful. It is associated with high rates of long and short term morbidity and mortality for mother and child. Despite this importance until now a scientometric analysis about the development and the state of scientific knowledge about smoking and pregnancy has not been published. In order to close this gap this work was conceived. In this dissertation quantitative and qualitative data on this topic was analyzed using a variety of objective scientometric methods like the number of scientific contributions, the number of citations and the modified Hirsch-index (H-index). A collective volume of 10,043 entries covering a time period from 1900 to December 5, 2012 was obtained from the Web of Science (WoS) data base. Publishing activities of authors, institutions and countries, their cooperation, reception within the international scientific community and its reactions were interpreted and illustrated.
Self-rated health in multimorbid older general practice patients: a cross-sectional study in Germany
Hendrik van den Bussche
- BACKGROUND: With increasing life expectancy the number of people affected by multimorbidity rises. Knowledge of factors associated with health-related quality of life in multimorbid people is scarce. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with self-rated health (SRH) in aged multimorbid primary care patients.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 3,189 multimorbid primary care patients aged from 65 to 85 years recruited in 158 general practices in 8 study centers in Germany. Information about morbidity, risk factors, resources, functional status and socio-economic data were collected in face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with SRH were identified by multivariable regression analyses.
RESULTS: Depression, somatization, pain, limitations of instrumental activities (iADL), age, distress and Body Mass Index (BMI) were inversely related with SRH. Higher levels of physical activity, income and self-efficacy expectation had a positive association with SRH. The only chronic diseases remaining in the final model were Parkinson's disease and neuropathies. The final model accounted for 35% variance of SRH. Separate analyses for men and women detected some similarities; however, gender specific variation existed for several factors.
CONCLUSION: In multimorbid patients symptoms and consequences of diseases such as pain and activity limitations, as well as depression, seem to be far stronger associated with SRH than the diseases themselves. High income and self-efficacy expectation are independently associated with better SRH and high BMI and age with low SRH.
Eradication of a chronic wound and driveline infection after redo-LVAD implantation
Ulrich A Stock
- A 48 year old patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic acne inversa underwent implantation of a LVAD system (Heartmate II, Thoratec, USA) March 2011. During 2011 and 2012 the patient was repeatedly readmitted for treatment of driveline infection with MRSA. Colonization was controlled with Linezolid and Rifampicin however reoccurred after discontinuation. In August 2012 the LVAD-system was exchanged due to pump dysfunction (HVAD, HeartWare Inc., USA). Postoperatively, the patient presented with ascites which secreted through the driveline exit. Consequently, the abdominal wall was surgically corrected to prevent exit of peritoneal fluid through the driveline, and the patient was discharged with sterile wound swabs. However 6 weeks after discharge the driveline exit wound started secreting pus showing abundant growth of multi resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). With clinical signs of increasing liver failure with regular need for paracentesis, and clinical signs of local infection, a CT scan of the abdomen was performed revealing an enrichment of contrast medium along the driveline and an abscess-like formation on the abdominal wall. Patient was admitted receiving regular dose Daptomycin and Rifampicin. The latter was discontinued after ten days. The abscess, surrounding driveline exit and abdominal wall cavity was excised and vacuum treatment initiated. Total duration of Daptomycin therapy was 3 weeks. While first week skin and wound swabs were still positive for MRSA, all samples were sterile after the second week. Inflammation was monitored by leucocyte count and IL6. The secretion of pus along the driveline ceased, the wound cavity was closed subsequently. After discharge and stop of antibiotics skin and driveline swabs remained negative for MRSA (10 weeks).
Loss of PINK1 Impairs Stress-Induced Autophagy and Cell Survival
Marthe A. Chimi
- The mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the ubiquitin ligase Parkin are participating in quality control after CCCP- or ROSinduced mitochondrial damage, and their dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, PINK1 expression is also induced by starvation indicating an additional role for PINK1 in stress response. Therefore, the effects of PINK1 deficiency on the autophago-lysosomal pathway during stress were investigated. Under trophic deprivation SH-SY5Y cells with stable PINK1 knockdown showed downregulation of key autophagic genes, including Beclin, LC3 and LAMP-2. In good agreement, protein levels of LC3-II and LAMP-2 but not of LAMP-1 were reduced in different cell model systems with PINK1 knockdown or knockout after addition of different stressors. This downregulation of autophagic factors caused increased apoptosis, which could be rescued by overexpression of LC3 or PINK1. Taken together, the PINK1-mediated reduction of autophagic key factors during stress resulted in increased cell death, thus defining an additional pathway that could contribute to the progression of Parkinson’s disease in patients with PINK1 mutations.
Consequences of a Human TRPA1 Genetic Variant on the Perception of Nociceptive and Olfactory Stimuli
Bruno G. Oertel
- Background: TRPA1 ion channels are involved in nociception and are also excited by pungent odorous substances. Based on reported associations of TRPA1 genetics with increased sensitivity to thermal pain stimuli, we therefore hypothesized that this association also exists for increased olfactory sensitivity. Methods: Olfactory function and nociception was compared between carriers (n = 38) and non-carriers (n = 43) of TRPA1 variant rs11988795 G.A, a variant known to enhance cold pain perception. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing the odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification, and by applying 200-ms pulses of H2S intranasal. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (blunt pressure, electrical stimuli, cold and heat stimuli, and 200-ms intranasal pulses of CO2). Results: Among the 11 subjects with moderate hyposmia, carriers of the minor A allele (n = 2) were underrepresented (34 carriers among the 70 normosmic subjects; p = 0.049). Moreover, carriers of the A allele discriminated odors significantly better than non-carriers (13.161.5 versus 12.361.6 correct discriminations) and indicated a higher intensity of the H2S stimuli (29.2613.2 versus 21612.8 mm VAS, p = 0.006), which, however, could not be excluded to have involved a trigeminal component during stimulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity to thermal pain could be reproduced. Conclusions: The findings are in line with a previous association of a human TRPA1 variant with nociceptive parameters and extend the association to the perception of odorants. However, this addresses mainly those stimulants that involve a trigeminal component whereas a pure olfactory effect may remain disputable. Nevertheless, findings suggest that future TRPA1 modulating drugs may modify the perception of odorants.
PEG-IFN Alpha but Not Ribavirin Alters NK Cell Phenotype and Function in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C
Antoaneta A. Markova
Michael P. Manns
- Background: Ribavirin (RBV) remains part of several interferon-free treatment strategies even though its mechanisms of action are still not fully understood. One hypothesis is that RBV increases responsiveness to type I interferons. Pegylated Interferon alpha (PEG-IFNa) has recently been shown to alter natural killer (NK) cell function possibly contributing to control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the effects of ribavirin alone or in combination with IFNa on NK cells are unknown.
Methods: Extensive ex vivo phenotyping and functional analysis of NK cells from hepatitis C patients was performed during antiviral therapy. Patients were treated for 6 weeks with RBV monotherapy (n = 11), placebo (n = 13) or PEG-IFNa-2a alone (n = 6) followed by PEG-IFNa/RBV combination therapy. The effects of RBV and PEG-IFNa-2a on NK cells were also studied in vitro after co-culture with K562 or Huh7.5 cells.
Results: Ribavirin monotherapy had no obvious effects on NK cell phenotype or function, neither ex vivo in patients nor in vitro. In contrast, PEG-IFNa-2a therapy was associated with an increase of CD56bright cells and distinct changes in expression profiles leading to an activated NK cell phenotype, increased functionality and decline of terminally differentiated NK cells. Ribavirin combination therapy reduced some of the IFN effects. An activated NK cell phenotype during therapy was inversely correlated with HCV viral load.
Conclusions: PEG-IFNa activates NK cells possibly contributing to virological responses independently of RBV. The role of NK cells during future IFN-free combination therapies including RBV remains to be determined.