Konsensusstatement "Praktische Fertigkeiten im Medizinstudium" – ein Positionspapier des GMA-Ausschusses für praktische Fertigkeiten
Patrick Daniel Boldt
- Einleitung: Angestoßen durch die Änderung der Approbationsordnung haben die berufspraktischen Kompetenzen in Deutschland eine höhere Priorität erhalten und werden in den medizinischen Fakultäten deswegen vermehrt vermittelt. Dadurch entstand die Notwendigkeit, den Prozess mehr und mehr zu standardisieren. Auf Initiative der deutschsprachigen Skills Labs wurde der GMA-Ausschuss für praktische Fertigkeiten gegründet, der einen kompetenzbasierten Lernzielkatalog entwickelte, dessen Entstehung und Struktur hier beschrieben wird. Ziel des Kataloges ist es, die praktischen Fertigkeiten im Medizinstudium zu definieren und damit den Fakultäten eine rationale Planungsgrundlage für die zur Vermittlung praktischer Fertigkeiten notwendigen Ressourcen zu geben.
Methodik: Aufbauend auf schon vorhandenen deutschsprachigen Lernzielkatalogen wurde mittels einem mehrfach iterativem Kondensationsprozesses, der der Erarbeitung von S1-Leitlinien entspricht, vorgegangen, um eine breite fachliche und politische Abstützung zu erhalten.
Ergebnisse: Es wurden 289 verschiedene praktische Lernziele identifiziert, die zwölf verschiedenen Organsystemen, drei Grenzbereichen zu anderen Kompetenzbereichen und einem Bereich mit organsystemübergreifenden Fertigkeiten zugeordnet. Sie wurden drei verschiedenen zeitlichen und drei verschiedenen Tiefendimensionen zugeordnet und mit dem Schweizer und dem Österreichischem Pendant abgeglichen.
Diskussion: Das vorliegende Konsensusstatement kann den deutschen Fakultäten eine Grundlage zur Planung der Vermittlung praktischer Fertigkeiten bieten und bildet einen wichtigen Schritt zu einem nationalen Standard medizinischer Lernziele.
Blick in die Zukunft: Das Konsensusstatement soll einen formativen Effekt auf die medizinischen Fakultäten haben, ihre praktischen Unterrichtsinhalte entsprechend zu vermitteln und die Ressourcen danach zu planen.
HER2 and ESR1 mRNA expression levels and response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer
Jan C. Brase
Peter A. Fasching
Bruno V. Sinn
Gunter von Minckwitz
- Introduction: Recent data suggest that benefit from trastuzumab and chemotherapy might be related to expression of HER2 and estrogen receptor (ESR1). Therefore, we investigated HER2 and ESR1 mRNA levels in core biopsies of HER2-positive breast carcinomas from patients treated within the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial.
Methods: HER2 levels were centrally analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), silver in-situ hybridization (SISH) and qRT-PCR in 217 pretherapeutic formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) core biopsies. All tumors had been HER2-positive by local pathology and had been treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab/ chemotherapy in GeparQuattro.
Results: Only 73% of the tumors (158 of 217) were centrally HER2-positive (cHER2-positive) by IHC/SISH, with cHER2-positive tumors showing a significantly higher pCR rate (46.8% vs. 20.3%, p<0.0005). HER2 status by qRT-PCR showed a concordance of 88.5% with the central IHC/SISH status, with a low pCR rate in those tumors that were HER2-negative by mRNA analysis (21.1% vs. 49.6%, p<0.0005). The level of HER2 mRNA expression was linked to response rate in ESR1-positive tumors, but not in ESR1-negative tumors. HER2 mRNA expression was significantly associated with pCR in the HER2-positive/ESR1-positive tumors (p=0.004), but not in HER2-positive/ESR1-negative tumors.
Conclusions: Only patients with cHER2-positive tumors - irrespective of the method used - have an increased pCR rate with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. In patients with cHER2-negative tumors the pCR rate is comparable to the pCR rate in the non-trastuzumab treated HER-negative population. Response to trastuzumab is correlated to HER2 mRNA levels only in ESR1-positive tumors. This study adds further evidence to the different biology of both subsets within the HER2-positive group.
Protocol TOP-Study (tacrolimus organ perfusion): a prospective randomized multicenter trial to reduce ischemia reperfusion injury in transplantation of marginal liver grafts with an ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion
Martin Kurt Angele
- Background: Critical organ shortage results in the utilization of extended donor criteria (EDC) liver grafts. These marginal liver grafts are prone to increased ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) which may contribute to deteriorated graft function and survival. Experimental data have shown that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus exerts protective effects on hepatic IRI when applied intravenously or directly as a hepatic rinse. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the effects of an ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion on IRI in transplantation of EDC liver grafts.
Methods/Design: The TOP-Study (tacrolimus organ perfusion) is a randomized multicenter trial comparing the ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion of marginal liver grafts with placebo. We hypothesize that a tacrolimus rinse reduces IRI, potentially improving organ survival following transplantation of EDC livers. The study includes livers with two or more EDC, according to Eurotransplant International Foundation’s definition of EDC livers. Prior to implantation, livers randomized to the treatment group are rinsed with tacrolimus at a concentration of 20 ng/ml in 1000 ml Custodiol solution and in the placebo group with Custodiol alone. The primary endpoint is the maximum serum alanine transamninase (ALT) level within the first 48 hours after surgery; however, the study design also includes a 1-year observation period following transplantation. The TOP-Study is an investigator-initiated trial sponsored by the University of Munich Hospital. Seven other German transplant centers are participating (Berlin, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Mainz, Münster, Regensburg, Tübingen) and aim to include a total of 86 patients.
Discussion: Tacrolimus organ perfusion represents a promising strategy to reduce hepatic IRI following the transplantation of marginal liver grafts. This treatment may help to improve the function of EDC grafts and therefore safely expand the donor pool in light of critical organ shortage.
Trial register: EudraCT number: 2010-021333-31, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01564095
An unusual unifocal presentation of Castleman’s disease in a young woman with a detailed description of sonographic findings to reduce diagnostic uncertainty: a case report
- Background: Castleman’s disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. It typically presents as mediastinal masses and causes a wide range of clinical symptoms. Histologically, Castleman’s disease is classified as either a hyalinic vascular or plasma cell variant. The prognosis mainly depends on the histological type and broadly varies. We herein report our sonographic findings in a patient with Castleman’s disease, including gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and sonoelastography ultrasonography, which have not been previously reported in the literature. These findings allowed for a preoperative diagnosis and avoidance of overly aggressive therapy.
Case presentation: A 28-year-old European female patient with unicentric Castleman’s disease of hyalinic vascular type (HV) restricted to the axilla was referred to us because of a 4-month history of a painless, solitary mass located in the left axilla. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable.
Conclusion: Castleman’s disease is a pathologic entity of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. In this case report of unicentric HV-type CD, we demonstrate that typical sonographic findings can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of Castleman’s disease. Core needle biopsy usually allows for a final diagnosis and helps to avoid unnecessary operations and overtreatment.
Risk factor analysis for fast track protocol failure
- Background: The introduction of fast-track treatment procedures following cardiac surgery has significantly shortened hospitalisation times in intensive care units (ICU). Readmission to intensive care units is generally considered a negative quality criterion. The aim of this retrospective study is to statistically analyse risk factors and predictors for re-admission to the ICU after a fast-track patient management program.
Methods: 229 operated patients (67 ± 11 years, 75% male, BMI 27 ± 3, 6/2010-5/2011) with use of extracorporeal circulation (70 ± 31 min aortic crossclamping, CABG 62%) were selected for a preoperative fast-track procedure (transfer on the day of surgery to an intermediate care (IMC) unit, stable circulatory conditions, extubated). A uni- and multivariate analysis were performed to identify independent predictors for re-admission to the ICU.
Results: Over the 11-month study period, 36% of all preoperatively declared fast-track patients could not be transferred to an IMC unit on the day of surgery (n = 77) or had to be readmitted to the ICU after the first postoperative day (n = 4). Readmission or ICU stay signifies a dramatic worsening of the patient outcome (mortality 0/10%, mean hospital stay 10.3 ± 2.5/16.5 ± 16.3, mean transfusion rate 1.4 ± 1,7/5.3 ± 9.1). Predicators for failure of the fast-track procedure are a preoperative ASA class > 3, NYHA class > III and an operation time >267 min ± 74. The significant risk factors for a major postoperative event (= low cardiac output and/or mortality and/or renal failure and/or re-thoracotomy and/or septic shock and/or wound healing disturbances and/or stroke) are a poor EF (OR 2.7 CI 95% 0.98-7.6) and the described ICU readmission (OR 0.14 CI95% 0.05-0.36).
Conclusion: Re-admission to the ICU or failure to transfer patients to the IMC is associated with a high loss of patient outcome. The ASA > 3, NYHA class > 3 and operation time >267 minutes are independent predictors of fast track protocol failure.
Blood Levels of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in Patients with Neurological Diseases
Christoph A. Mayer
- Background and Purpose: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential “specificity gaps” of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases.
Methods: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics.
Results: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found.
Conclusion: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.
Impact of treatment planning target volumen (PTV) size on radiation induced diarrhoea following selenium supplementation in gynecologic radiation oncology : a subgroup analysis of a multicenter, phase III trial
Irenäus A. Adamietz
- Background: In a previous analysis (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 70:828-835,2010), we assessed whether an adjuvant supplementation with selenium (Se) improves Se status and reduces the radiation-induced side-effects of patients treated by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for cervical and uterine cancer. Now, a potential relation between the planning target volume (PTV) of the RT and the Se effect concerning radiation induced diarrhoea was evaluated in detail.
Methods: Whole blood Se concentrations had been measured in patients with cervical (n=11) and uterine cancer (n=70) after surgical treatment, during, and at the end of RT. Patients with initial Se concentrations of less than 84 μg/l were categorized as Se-deficient and randomized before RT to receive Se (as sodium selenite) per os on the days of RT, or to receive no supplement during RT. Diarrhoea was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria system (CTC, Version 2a). The evaluation of the PTV of the RT was ascertained with the help of a specialised computer-assisted treatment planning software used for radiation planning procedure.
Results: A total of 81 patients had been randomized for the initial supplementation study, 39 of which received Se [selenium group, SeG] and 42 serving as controls [control group, CG]. Mean Se levels did not differ between SeG and CG upon study initiation, but were significantly higher in the SeG compared to the CG at the end of RT. The actuarial incidence of at least CTC 2 radiation induced diarrhoea in the SeG was 20.5% compared to 44.5% in the CG (p=0.04). The median PTV in both groups was 1302 ml (916–4608). With a PTV of <= 1302 ml (n=41) the actuarial incidence of at least CTC 2 diarrhoea in the SeG was 22.3% (4 of 18 patients) compared to 34.8% (8 of 23 patients) in the CG (p=0.50). In patients with a PTV of > 1302 ml (n=40) the actuarial incidence of at least CTC 2 diarrhoea in the SeG was 19.1% (4 of 21 patients) versus 52.6% (10 of 19 patients) in the CG (p=0.046).
Conclusions: Se supplementation during RT was effective to improve blood Se status in Se-deficient cervical and uterine cancer patients, and reduces episodes and severity of RT-induced diarrhoea. This effect was most pronounced and significant in patients with large PTV (> 1302 ml).
Deficits in high- (>60 Hz) gamma-band oscillations during visual processing in schizophrenia
Peter J. Uhlhaas
- Current theories of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have focused on abnormal temporal coordination of neural activity. Oscillations in the gamma-band range (>25 Hz) are of particular interest as they establish synchronization with great precision in local cortical networks. However, the contribution of high gamma (>60 Hz) oscillations toward the pathophysiology is less established. To address this issue, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data from 16 medicated patients with chronic schizophrenia and 16 controls during the perception of Mooney faces. MEG data were analysed in the 25–150 Hz frequency range. Patients showed elevated reaction times and reduced detection rates during the perception of upright Mooney faces while responses to inverted stimuli were intact. Impaired processing of Mooney faces in schizophrenia patients was accompanied by a pronounced reduction in spectral power between 60–120 Hz (effect size: d = 1.26) which was correlated with disorganized symptoms (r = −0.72). Our findings demonstrate that deficits in high gamma-band oscillations as measured by MEG are a sensitive marker for aberrant cortical functioning in schizophrenia, suggesting an important aspect of the pathophysiology of the disorder.
Identification of non-canonical NF-κB signaling as a critical mediator of Smac mimetic-stimulated migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells
- As inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins can regulate additional signaling pathways beyond apoptosis, we investigated the effect of the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic BV6, which antagonizes IAP proteins, on non-apoptotic functions in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we identify non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)/TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) autocrine/paracrine loop as critical mediators of BV6-stimulated migration and invasion of GBM cells. In addition to GBM cell lines, BV6 triggers cell elongation, migration and invasion in primary, patient-derived GBM cells at non-toxic concentrations, which do not affect cell viability or proliferation, and also increases infiltrative tumor growth in vivo underscoring the relevance of these findings. Molecular studies reveal that BV6 causes rapid degradation of cellular IAP proteins, accumulation of NIK, processing of p100 to p52, translocation of p52 into the nucleus, increased NF-κB DNA binding and enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay supershift shows that the NF-κB DNA-binding subunits consist of p50, p52 and RelB further confirming the activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. BV6-stimulated NF-κB activation leads to elevated mRNA levels of TNFα and additional NF-κB target genes involved in migration (i.e., interleukin 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, CXC chemokine receptor 4) and invasion (i.e., matrix metalloproteinase-9). Importantly, inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor prevents the BV6-stimulated cell elongation, migration and invasion. Similarly, specific inhibition of non-canonical NF-κB signaling by RNA interference-mediated silencing of NIK suppresses the BV6-induced cell elongation, migration and invasion as well as upregulation of NF-κB target genes. Intriguingly, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the BV6-stimulated TNFα autocrine/paracrine loop by the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel or by knockdown of TNFR1 abrogates BV6-induced cell elongation, migration and invasion. By demonstrating that the Smac mimetic BV6 at non-toxic concentrations promotes migration and invasion of GBM cells via non-canonical NF-κB signaling, our findings have important implications for the use of Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics.
miRNA let-7e Modulates the Wnt Pathway and Early Nephrogenic Markers in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation
Jose Luis Viñas
- This study indicates that embryonic stem cells [ESCs] cultured with retinoic acid and activin A significantly upregulate the miRNA let-7e. This specific miRNA modulates the Wnt pathway and the expression of early nephrogenic markers under these differentiation conditions. The differentiation markers WT1, Pax2 and Wnt4 were downregulated when miRNA let-7e was silenced, thus indicating the role of miRNA let-7e in the differentiation process. PKCβ, GSK3β phosphorylation (GSK3βP) and β-catenin expression was reduced in differentiated cells and reversed by miRNA let-7e silencing. Addition of a PKCβ inhibitor to the miRNA let-7e silenced cells abolished let-7e-derived effects in differentiation markers, and reversed the increase in GSK3βP and β-catenin, thus indicating that miRNA let-7e is involved in differentiation via the modulation of GSK3β phosphorylation and β-catenin production.