Der Luxus im Ancien Regime
Jüdischer Geist im modernen Wirtschaftsleben
Der Bourgeois einst und jetzt
Study on the Palaearctic Pristiphora species (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)
- The first key is completed for the Palaearctic Pristiphora Latereille, 1810 species. Pristiphora araratensis sp. n. is descdbed. Pristiphora kamtchatica Malaise, 1931, Pristiphora mesatlantica Lacourt, 1976 and Pristiphora amelanchieris (Takeuchi, 1922) are new synonyms of Pristiphora insularis Rohwer, 1910.
Contribution of very short-lived organic substances to stratospheric chlorine and bromine in the tropics : a case study
Johannes Christian Laube
David R. Worton
William T. Sturges
- The total stratospheric organic chlorine and bromine burden was derived from balloon-borne measurements in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5°04´ S, 42°52´ W) in 2005. Whole air samples were collected cryogenically at altitudes between 15 and 34 km. For the first time, we report measurements of a set of 28 chlorinated and brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere including ten substances with an atmospheric lifetime of less than half a year. The substances were quantified using pre-concentration techniques followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometric detection. In the tropical tropopause layer at altitudes between 15 and 17 km we found 1.1–1.4% of the chlorine and 6–8% of the bromine to be present in the form of very short-lived organic compounds. By combining the data with tropospheric reference data and age of air observations the abundances of inorganic chlorine and bromine (Cly and Bry) were derived. At an altitude of 34 km we calculated 3062 ppt of Cly and 17.5 ppt of Bry from the decomposition of both long- and short-lived organic source gases. Furthermore we present indications for the presence of additional organic brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere.
Contribution of mixing to upward transport across the tropical tropopause layer (TTL)
Fábio Henrique Silva dos Santos
Laura L. Pan
- During the second part of the TROCCINOX campaign that took place in Brazil in early 2005, chemical species were measured on-board the high-altitude research aircraft Geophysica (ozone, water vapor, NO, NOy, CH4 and CO) in the altitude range up to 20 km (or up to 450 K potential temperature), i.e. spanning the entire TTL region roughly extending between 350 and 420 K. Here, analysis of transport across the TTL is performed using a new version of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). In this new version, the stratospheric model has been extended to the earth surface. Above the tropopause, the isentropic and cross-isentropic advection in CLaMS is driven by meteorological analysis winds and heating/cooling rates derived from a radiation calculation. Below the tropopause, the model smoothly transforms from the isentropic to the hybrid-pressure coordinate and, in this way, takes into account the effect of large-scale convective transport as implemented in the vertical wind of the meteorological analysis. As in previous CLaMS simulations, the irreversible transport, i.e. mixing, is controlled by the local horizontal strain and vertical shear rates. Stratospheric and tropospheric signatures in the TTL can be seen both in the observations and in the model. The composition of air above ≈350 K is mainly controlled by mixing on a time scale of weeks or even months. Based on CLaMS transport studies where mixing can be completely switched off, we deduce that vertical mixing, mainly driven by the vertical shear in the tropical flanks of the subtropical jets and, to some extent, in the the outflow regions of the large-scale convection, offers an explanation for the upward transport of trace species from the main convective outflow at around 350 K up to the tropical tropopause around 380 K.
Hystoria das Cercas : que os Olandezes puzerão à Fortaleza de Mozambique o Anno de 607 e 608 ; sendo capitão e governador della Dom Estevão de Atayde. Dirigida ao Illustrissimo Senhor Dom Francisco da· Gama Almyrante do mar da lndya e prezidente do Concelho della. Copyllada por Antonio Durão Soldado dos mesmos cercos
António Meyrelles do Souto
Das Verstehen : (eine Problemgeschichte als Begriffssgeschichte)
- Gliederung I. Einleitung: Geistesgeschichtliche Exposition des Begriffes II. a) Die Entstehung des rationalen Verstehensbegriffs und in Abhängigkeit davon des Begriffs der naturwissenschaftlichen "Erklärung" b) Die Entstehung der hermeneutischen Tradition des Wortes "Verstehen" III. Das Verstehen als Grundbegriff der Erkenntnistheorie der Geisteswissenschaften IV. Das Verstehen als Grundbegriff einer Fundamentalontologie
Universals in the content and structure of values : theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries
Shalom H. Schwartz
- The study adressed 4 basic issues: (1) What are the substantive contents of human values? (2) Can we identify a comprehensive set of values? (3) To what extent is the meaning of particular values equivalent for different groups of people? (4) How are the relations among different values structured? These issues required resolution before the antecedents and consequences of value priorities, or cross-cultural differences in such priorities, could be studied effectively. Substantial progress has been made toward resolving each of these issues.