New taxa and combinations in Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)
Eugenio H. Nearns
Ian P. Swift
- Monneoncideres, a new genus of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is
described and illustrated. Six new species of Onciderini are also described and illustrated: Hesycha tavakiliani
from Brazil; Lesbates milleri from Venezuela; Monneoncideres cristata from Ecuador and Peru; Neodillonia waltersi
from Ecuador; Tibiosioma martinsi from Ecuador; and Trestonia wappesi from Panama. Keys to the known species
of Lesbates Dillon and Dillon, 1945 and Tibiosioma Martins and Galilleo, 1990 are provided. The genus
Ophthalmocydrus Aurivillius, 1925 (Onciderini) is transferred to Pteropliini (Lamiinae); and Xylomimus Bates,
1865 (Apomecynini) is transferred to Onciderini. The following new synonymies are proposed: Kuauna Martins
and Galileo, 2009 = Opthalmocydrus Aurivillius, 1925; Kuauna schmidi Martins and Galileo, 2009 = Ophthalmocydrus
semiorbifer Aurivillius, 1925; Paraplerodia Martins and Galileo, 2010 = Tibiosioma Martins and Galileo, 2007;
Paraplerodia acarinata Martins and Galileo, 2010 = Tibiosioma maculosa Martins and Galileo, 2007; and
Ischiomaeocles Franz, 1954 = Lochmaeocles Bates, 1880. The following new combination is proposed: Lochmaeocles
salvadorensis (Franz, 1954), transferred from Ischiomaeocles. The following 37 new country records are reported:
Alexera barii (Jekel, 1861) (Bolivia, Ecuador); Bacuris sexvittatus (Bates, 1865) (Panama); Cacostola brasiliensis
Thomson, 1868 (Argentina); Cherentes niveilateris (Thomson, 1868) (French Guiana); Cicatrodea monima Dillon
and Dillon, 1946 (Ecuador); Clavidesmus metallicus (Thomson, 1868) (Ecuador, Peru); Cydros leucurus Pascoe, 1866
(Brazil); Ecthoea quadricornis (Olivier, 1792) (Ecuador); Eudesmus grisescens Audinet-Serville, 1835 (Ecuador,
Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela); Euthima variegata (Aurivillius, 1921) (Ecuador); Hesychotypa heraldica (Bates,
1872) (Belize, Guatemala); Hesychotypa punctata Martins, 1979 (Peru); Lochmaeocles basalis Dillon and Dillon,
1946 (Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago); Lochmaeocles zonatus Dillon and Dillon, 1946 (Venezuela); Lydipta conspersa
(Aurivillius, 1922) (Peru); Neocherentes dilloniorum Tippmann, 1960 (Brazil); Neolampedusa obliquator (Fabricius,
1801) (Ecuador); Peritrox perbra Dillon and Dillon, 1945 (Ecuador); Priscatoides tatila Dillon and Dillon, 1945
(Bolivia); Strioderes peruanus Giorgi, 2001 (Brazil); Trachysomus apipunga Martins and Galileo, 2008 (Peru);
Trachysomus camelus Buquet, 1852 (Venezuela); Trachysomus peregrinus Thomson, 1858 (Ecuador); Trachysomus
thomsoni Aurivillius, 1923 (Venezuela); Trestoncideres laterialba Martins and Galileo, 1990 (Brazil); Trestonia
exotica Galileo and Martins, 1990 (Ecuador); Trestonia fulgurata Buquet, 1859 (Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago);
Tritania dilloni Chalumeau, 1990 (Venezuela); Tulcus paganus (Pascoe, 1859) (Ecuador); Xylomimus baculus Bates,
1865 (French Guiana). Theobroma cacao Linnaeus (Sterculiaceae) is recorded as a new host plant record for Eudesmus
Taxonomy, identification, and phylogeny of the African and Madagascan species of the tiger beetle genus Chaetodera Jeannel 1946 (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)
Jonathan R. Mawdsley
- The taxonomy of the African and Madagascan species of the tiger beetle genus Chaetodera Jeannel 1946
(Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) is reviewed based on studies of primary types and additional museum specimens. Six
species are recognized: C. andriana (Alluaud 1900), C. antatsima (Alluaud 1902), C. blanchardi (Fairmaire 1882),
C. maheva (Künckel d’Herculais 1887), C. perrieri (Fairmaire 1897), and C. regalis (Dejean 1831). All species are
illustrated, including color variants, and a key to species and maps of species distributions are provided. A
hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships is proposed for the nine worldwide species of the genus Chaetodera based
on computerized parsimony analysis of a matrix containing data on 16 adult morphological characteristics.
Noteworthy Records of Hispines from Belize (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
R. F. C. Naczi
Charles L. Staines
- Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly, Cephaloleia fulvolimbata Baly, Cephaloleia ruficollis Baly, Chalepus
amabilis Baly, Chalepus brevicornis (Baly), Chalepus pici Descarpentries and Villiers, Microrhopala erebus (Newman),
Octhispa bimaculata Uhmann, Octotoma championi Baly, Pseudispa tuberculata Staines, Sceloenopla erudita (Baly),
Stenispa guatemalensis Uhmann, Sumitrosis gestroi (Weise), and Sumitrosis terminatus (Baly) (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) are new country records of hispine chrysomelids for Belize, based on collections cited
herein. These collections also document new host records for Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Chamaedorea
tepejilote Liebm., Arecaceae), Cephaloleia consanguinea (Heliconia bourgaeana Petersen, H. collinsiana Griggs, H.
latispatha Benth., H. wagneriana Petersen; Heliconiaceae), and Cephaloleia perplexa Baly (Heliconia bourgaeana,
H. latispatha; Heliconiaceae).
Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation
Thomas C. Brachert
Dieter F. Mertz
- Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.
Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.
Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (∼1.11) than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O∼0.4), which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (∼0.36), which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O∼0.22). Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.
Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and Na2O-rich, but Cl-poor bioapatite near the EDJ and MgO- and Na2O-poor, but Cl-rich bioapatite at the outer enamel rim.
The linkage between lake and river water composition, bioavailability of elements for plants, animal nutrition and tooth formation is complex and multifaceted. The quality and limits of the MgO/Na2O and other proxies have to be established with systematic investigations relating chemical distribution patterns to sedimentary environment and to growth structures developing as secretion and maturation proceed during tooth formation.
„Nichts ist widerlicher als eine sogenannte Dichterlesung.“ : Deutsche Autorenlesungen zwischen Marketing und Selbstpräsentation
Gunter E. Grimm
- Dichterlesungen boomen. Man muss nur in das Tagesangebot der Zeitungen schauen, man muss nur in Buchhandlungen gehen, in Volkshochschulen, in Stadtbüchereien: überall sieht man Plakate und Programme, die Lesungen zeitgenössischer Autoren anbieten. Das ist umso verwunderlicher, weil im Allgemeinen Dichterlesungen nicht allzu beliebt sind, auch bei vielen Autoren nicht. Das einschlägige Motto „Nichts ist widerlicher als eine sogenannte Dichterlesung“ stammt aus Thomas Bernhards Schimpfroman „Alte Meister“, in dem der 82jährige Musikkritiker Reger seinen typischen Wiener Schmäh über fast die gesamte österreichische Kunst, Literatur und Musik, in seitenlangen Monologen ausgießt.
Structural characterization and interaction studies of ubiquitin-like proteins
- Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein involved in several cellular processes like protein degradation, endocytosis, signal transduction and DNA repair. The discovery of ubiquitin-like proteins (UBL) and ubiquitin-like domains (ULD) increases the number of regulation pathways where the property of the ubiquitin-fold is profitable.
Autophagy is the catabolic pathway used in cells to deliver cytosolic components and dysfunctional organelles to the lysosome for degradation. MAP1LC3 proteins are ubiquitin-like proteins involved in one hand for the expansion of the autophagosome, which sequesters cytosolic substrates. In the other hand, these proteins (LC3- and GABARAP- subfamilies) bind to autophagic receptors linked to polyubiquitinated proteins aggregates. For this project, the 3D structure of the GABARAPL-1/NBR1-LIR complex was determined and confirmed that GABARAPL-1 belongs to the MAP1LC3 proteins family, structurally characterized by an ubiquitin-fold, consisting of a central beta-sheet formed by four beta-strands and two alpha-helices on one side of the beta-sheet, preceded N terminally by two alpha-helices, resulting in the formation of two hydrophobic pockets, hp1 and hp2. The autophagic receptor NBR1 interacts with GABARAPL-1 through the hp1 and hp2 with its LIR motif taking an extended beta conformation upon binding, forming an intermolecular beta-sheet with the second beta-strand of GABARAPL 1. This LC3- interacting region (LIR) consists of an Theta XX Gamma sequence preceded by acidic amino acids, with Theta and Gamma represented by any aromatic and hydrophobic residues, respectively. Interaction studies of the LIR domains of p62, Nix and NBR1 with different members of the MAP1LC3 proteins family indicate that the presence of a tryptophan in the LIR motif increases the binding affinity. Substitution to other aromatic amino acids or increasing the number of negatively charged residues at the N-terminus of the LIR motif, however, has little effect on the binding affinity due to enthalpy-entropy compensation, suggesting that effector proteins can interact with a wide variety of different sequences with similar and moderate binding affinities.
Additionally to be present in proteins dealing with protein folding and degradation, ubiquitin-like domain were found protein involved in the regulation of signal transduction like TBK1, a serine/threonine kinase responsible for induction of immune response. In this second project, based on the NMR chemical shifts of the TBK1 domain contained between amino acids 302 and 383, secondary structure prediction programs (TALOS and CSI) confirmed the presence of an Ubiquitin-like domain in TBK1 by identifying one alpha-helix and four beta-strands sequentially aligned like following beta-beta-alpha-beta-beta. This alignment corresponds perfectly with the secondary structure elements of Ubiquitin and proved that TBK1_ULD belongs to the UBL protein superfamily. The similarity to ubiquitin was even bigger by the presence in addition of a small beta-strand and a short helix, which are observed as the beta 5-strand and a 310-helix in Ubiquitin, respectively. The first attempts on the 3D structure determination confirmed the Ub-fold but due to the lack of assignment in TBK1_ULD, only a structure based on ubiquitin as a model was determined. Interaction studies of TBK1_ULD with the IAD-SRR domain of IRF3 showed that both side of the molecule seems involved and that the TBK1/IRF3 interaction is more complex than a one to one binding process. Unfortunately, the instability of TBK1_ULD associated to the difficulty in the purification of IAD-SRR did not allow to further study this interaction more precisely.
Finally, to overcome the difficulty encountered in NMR experiments because of low expression and/or poor solubility, an expression vector using the intrinsic property of ubiquitin was designed. Fused to proteins or peptides targets, this construct produced proteins and peptides in a larger amount than with traditional expression vectors and also with a less cost than chemical synthesis for pure labeled peptides for NMR structural studies. The presence of a hexa histidine tag was useful for the isolation and the purification of the constructs. The existence of a TEV cleavage site was created to keep the possibility of releasing the ubiquitin moiety from the expressed protein or peptide. Moreover, the ubiquitin-tag could also still be attached to the protein/peptide of interest when biophysical methods like NMR, ITC or CD spectroscopy are applied, providing the same results than for the protein/peptide moiety alone.
A new Nearctic species of Placonotus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)
Michael C. Thomas
- Placonotus falinorum Thomas, new species (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), is described from Kansas.
Habitus and genitalic details are illustrated and the species is distinguished from other New World members of
the genus. Placonotus maya Thomas is newly recorded from Honduras.
A review and clarification of the alticine genera Hemiphrynus Horn 1889 and Phrynocepha Baly 1861 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)
Arthur J. Gilbert
- The alticine genera Hemiphrynus Horn 1889 and Phrynocepha Baly 1861 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are reviewed and their status clarified. Both genera and all previously known species are redescribed. Four new species of Hemiphrynus are described: H. barri, H. corrugatus, H. smithi, and H. sydneyae. Six new species of Phrynocepha are described: P. australis, P. kendrae, P. marciae, P. natalieae, P. pseudocapitata, and P. pueblae. The following new combination is proposed: Hemiphrynus elongatus (Jacoby 1884) transferred from Phrynocepha. Hemiphrynus sulcatipennis Jacoby 1891 and H. tenuicornis Jacoby 1891 are reinstated in Hemiphrynus, incertae sedis. Hemiphrynus elongatus is recorded from New Mexico, a new record for the United States. Lectotypes are here designated for the following species: H. elongatus, H. intermedius (Jacoby 1884), H. sulcatipennis, H. tenuicornis, P. capitata Jacoby 1884, P. deyrollei Baly 1876, and P. pulchella Baly 1861. A key to differentiate the two genera and keys to the species in both genera are provided. Host records are given for a few species of both Hemiphrynus and Phrynocepha. Distribution maps are presented for all species.
Global estimation of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas on a 5 arc-minute grid
Felix Theodor Portmann
- Agriculture of crops provides more than 85% of the energy in human diet, while also securing income of more than 2.6 billion people. To investigate past, present and future changes in the domain of food security, water resources and water use, nutrient cycles, and land management it is required to know the agricultural land use, in particular which crop grows where and when. The current global land use or land cover data sets are based on remote sensing and agricultural census statistics. In general, these only contain one or very few classes of agricultural land use. When crop-specific areas are given, no distinction of irrigated and rainfed areas is made, whereas it is necessary to distinguish rainfed and irrigated crops, because crop productivity and water use differ significantly between them.
To support global-scale assessments that are sensitive to agricultural land use, the global data set of Monthly Irrigated and Rainfed Crop Areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) was developed by the author. With a spatial resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 9.2 km at the equator), MIRCA2000 provides for the first time, spatially explicit irrigated and rainfed crop areas separately for each of the 26 crop classes for each month of the year, and includes multi-cropping. The data set covers all major food crops as well as cotton, while the remaining crops are grouped into three categories (perennial, annual and fodder grasses). Also for the first time, crop calendars on national or sub-national level were consistently linked to annual values of harvested area at the 5 arc-minutes grid cell level, such that monthly growing areas could be computed that are representative for the time period 1998 to 2002.
The downscaling algorithm maximizes the consistency to the grid-based input data of cropland extent [Ramankutty et al., 2008], crop-specific total annual harvested area [Monfreda et al., 2008], and area equipped for irrigation [Siebert et al., 2007]. In addition to the methodology, this dissertation describes differences to other datasets and standard scaling methods, as well as some applications. For quality assessment independent datasets and newly developed quality parameters are used, and scale effects are discussed.
Supplementary Appendices document crop calendars for irrigated and rainfed crops for each of the 402 spatial units (Appendix I), data sources of harvested area and of cropping periods for irrigated crops, country by country (Appendix K), as well as data quality parameters (Appendix L, including spreadsheet files).
Kritische studentische Initiativen an der Bologna-reformierten Universität – Möglichkeiten und Grenzen
Wahrscheinlich hat es seit den 1970er Jahren nicht mehr so viele kritische Initiativen von Geographiestudierenden an Hochschulen in deutschsprachigen Ländern gegeben wie heute. Ihre Aktivitäten reichen von Lesekreisen, Tutorien, Exkursionen, Film- und Vortragsreihen bis zu politischen Aktionen, wobei viele Initiativen über den Arbeitskreis (AK) Kritische Geographie vernetzt sind. Parallel zu dieser erfreulichen Beobachtung findet ein fundamentaler Umbau der Hochschule statt. Die zunehmende Ökonomisierung des Studiums durch den Bologna-Prozess birgt die Gefahr, Gesellschaftskritik auf dem Altar der Verwertbarkeit und der "Praxisrelevanz" zu opfern. Diese Entwicklungen geben Anlass, das Verhältnis zwischen der Arbeit kritischer Initiativen und den reformierten Universitäten kritisch zu hinterfragen und damit den Zusammenhang zwischen Bologna-Prozess, Neoliberalisierung und kritischer Wissenschaft für die geographische Hochschullehre aus einer studentischen Perspektive zu beleuchten, wird doch ein nicht unbedeutender Teil der kritischen Geographie von Studierenden getragen.
Im Folgenden werden wir kurz auf den Bologna-Prozess eingehen, anschließend die Fragestellung und das methodische Vorgehen erläutern, um darauf aufbauend die empirischen Ergebnisse vorzustellen und zu diskutieren.