Temporal information processing in short- and long-term memory of patients with schizophrenia
Elke van der Meer
- Cognitive deficits of patients with schizophrenia have been largely recognized as core symptoms of the disorder. One neglected factor that contributes to these deficits is the comprehension of time. In the present study, we assessed temporal information processing and manipulation from short- and long-term memory in 34 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 34 matched healthy controls. On the short-term memory temporal-order reconstruction task, an incidental or intentional learning strategy was deployed. Patients showed worse overall performance than healthy controls. The intentional learning strategy led to dissociable performance improvement in both groups. Whereas healthy controls improved on a performance measure (serial organization), patients improved on an error measure (inappropriate semantic clustering) when using the intentional instead of the incidental learning strategy. On the long-term memory script-generation task, routine and non-routine events of everyday activities (e.g., buying groceries) had to be generated in either chronological or inverted temporal order. Patients were slower than controls at generating events in the chronological routine condition only. They also committed more sequencing and boundary errors in the inverted conditions. The number of irrelevant events was higher in patients in the chronological, non-routine condition. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia imprecisely access temporal information from short- and long-term memory. In short-term memory, processing of temporal information led to a reduction in errors rather than, as was the case in healthy controls, to an improvement in temporal-order recall. When accessing temporal information from long-term memory, patients were slower and committed more sequencing, boundary, and intrusion errors. Together, these results suggest that time information can be accessed and processed only imprecisely by patients who provide evidence for impaired time comprehension. This could contribute to symptomatic cognitive deficits and strategic inefficiency in schizophrenia.
Warfarin anticoagulation exacerbates the risk of hemorrhagic transformation after rt-PA treatment in experimental stroke: therapeutic potential of PCC
Josef Martin Pfeilschifter
- Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with warfarin is the standard of stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Approximately 30% of patients with cardioembolic strokes are on OAT at the time of symptom onset. We investigated whether warfarin exacerbates the risk of thrombolysis-associated hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in a mouse model of ischemic stroke.
Methods: 62 C57BL/6 mice were used for this study. To achieve effective anticoagulation, warfarin was administered orally. We performed right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 3 h and assessed functional deficit and HT blood volume after 24 h.
Results: In non-anticoagulated mice, treatment with rt-PA (10 mg/kg i.v.) after 3 h MCAO led to a 5-fold higher degree of HT compared to vehicle-treated controls (4.0±0.5 µl vs. 0.8±0.1, p<0.001). Mice on warfarin revealed larger amounts of HT after rt-PA treatment in comparison to non-anticoagulated mice (9.2±3.2 µl vs. 2.8±1.0, p<0.05). The rapid reversal of anticoagulation by means of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC, 100 IU/kg) at the end of the 3 h MCAO period, but prior to rt-PA administration, neutralized the exacerbated risk of HT as compared to sham-treated controls (3.8±0.7 µl vs. 15.0±3.8, p<0.001).
Conclusion: In view of the vastly increased risk of HT, it seems to be justified to withhold tPA therapy in effectively anticoagulated patients with acute ischemic stroke. The rapid reversal of anticoagulation with PCC prior to tPA application reduces the risk attributed to warfarin pretreatment and may constitute an interesting therapeutic option.
Phosphorylation of Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) dampens hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury
Julio C. Morote-Garcia
- Recent work has demonstrated that the formation of platelet neutrophil complexes (PNCs) affects inflammatory tissue injury. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is crucially involved into the control of PNC formation and myocardial reperfusion injury. Given the clinical importance of hepatic IR injury we pursued the role of VASP during hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion. We report here that VASP−/− animals demonstrate reduced hepatic IR injury compared to wildtype (WT) controls. This correlated with serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase and the presence of PNCs within ischemic hepatic tissue and could be confirmed using repression of VASP through siRNA. In studies employing bone marrow chimeric mice we identified hematopoietic VASP to be of crucial importance for the extent of hepatic injury. Phosphorylation of VASP on Ser153 through Prostaglandin E1 or on Ser235 through atrial natriuretic peptide resulted in a significant reduction of hepatic IR injury. This was associated with a reduced presence of PNCs in ischemic hepatic tissue. Taken together, these studies identified VASP and VASP phosphorylation as crucial target for future hepatoprotective strategies.
Additive antinociceptive effects of a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E after peripheral nerve injury
- Accumulating evidence indicates that increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the development of exaggerated pain hypersensitivity during persistent pain. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of the antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We show that systemic administration of a combination of vitamins C and E inhibited the early behavioral responses to formalin injection and the neuropathic pain behavior after peripheral nerve injury, but not the inflammatory pain behavior induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In contrast, vitamin C or vitamin E given alone failed to affect the nociceptive behavior in all tested models. The attenuated neuropathic pain behavior induced by the vitamin C and E combination was paralleled by a reduced p38 phosphorylation in the spinal cord and in dorsal root ganglia, and was also observed after intrathecal injection of the vitamins. Moreover, the vitamin C and E combination ameliorated the allodynia induced by an intrathecally delivered ROS donor. Our results suggest that administration of vitamins C and E in combination may exert synergistic antinociceptive effects, and further indicate that ROS essentially contribute to nociceptive processing in special pain states.
Adaptive radiation within marine anisakid nematodes: a zoogeographical modeling of cosmopolitan, zoonotic parasites
- Parasites of the nematode genus Anisakis are associated with aquatic organisms. They can be found in a variety of marine hosts including whales, crustaceans, fish and cephalopods and are known to be the cause of the zoonotic disease anisakiasis, a painful inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract caused by the accidental consumptions of infectious larvae raw or semi-raw fishery products. Since the demand on fish as dietary protein source and the export rates of seafood products in general is rapidly increasing worldwide, the knowledge about the distribution of potential foodborne human pathogens in seafood is of major significance for human health. Studies have provided evidence that a few Anisakis species can cause clinical symptoms in humans. The aim of our study was to interpolate the species range for every described Anisakis species on the basis of the existing occurrence data. We used sequence data of 373 Anisakis larvae from 30 different hosts worldwide and previously published molecular data (n = 584) from 53 field-specific publications to model the species range of Anisakis spp., using a interpolation method that combines aspects of the alpha hull interpolation algorithm as well as the conditional interpolation approach. The results of our approach strongly indicate the existence of species-specific distribution patterns of Anisakis spp. within different climate zones and oceans that are in principle congruent with those of their respective final hosts. Our results support preceding studies that propose anisakid nematodes as useful biological indicators for their final host distribution and abundance as they closely follow the trophic relationships among their successive hosts. The modeling might although be helpful for predicting the likelihood of infection in order to reduce the risk of anisakiasis cases in a given area.
Molecular phylogeny of the acanthocephala (class palaeacanthocephala) with a paraphyletic assemblage of the orders polymorphida and echinorhynchida
Harry W. Palm
- Acanthocephalans are attractive candidates as model organisms for studying the ecology and co-evolutionary history of parasitic life cycles in the marine ecosystem. Adding to earlier molecular analyses of this taxon, a total of 36 acanthocephalans belonging to the classes Archiacanthocephala (3 species), Eoacanthocephala (3 species), Palaeacanthocephala (29 species), Polyacanthocephala (1 species) and Rotifera as outgroup (3 species) were analyzed by using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of nuclear 18S rDNA sequence. This data set included three re-collected and six newly collected taxa, Bolbosoma vasculosum from Lepturacanthus savala, Filisoma rizalinum from Scatophagus argus, Rhadinorhynchus pristis from Gempylus serpens, R. lintoni from Selar crumenophthalmus, Serrasentis sagittifer from Johnius coitor, and Southwellina hispida from Epinephelus coioides, representing 5 new host and 3 new locality records. The resulting trees suggest a paraphyletic arrangement of the Echinorhynchida and Polymorphida inside the Palaeacanthocephala. This questions the placement of the genera Serrasentis and Gorgorhynchoides within the Echinorhynchida and not the Polymorphida, necessitating further insights into the systematic position of these taxa based on morphology.
A genomic approach to examine the complex evolution of laurasiatherian mammals
Björn M. Hallström
- Recent phylogenomic studies have failed to conclusively resolve certain branches of the placental mammalian tree, despite the evolutionary analysis of genomic data from 32 species. Previous analyses of single genes and retroposon insertion data yielded support for different phylogenetic scenarios for the most basal divergences. The results indicated that some mammalian divergences were best interpreted not as a single bifurcating tree, but as an evolutionary network. In these studies the relationships among some orders of the super-clade Laurasiatheria were poorly supported, albeit not studied in detail. Therefore, 4775 protein-coding genes (6,196,263 nucleotides) were collected and aligned in order to analyze the evolution of this clade. Additionally, over 200,000 introns were screened in silico, resulting in 32 phylogenetically informative long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) insertion events.
The present study shows that the genome evolution of Laurasiatheria may best be understood as an evolutionary network. Thus, contrary to the common expectation to resolve major evolutionary events as a bifurcating tree, genome analyses unveil complex speciation processes even in deep mammalian divergences. We exemplify this on a subset of 1159 suitable genes that have individual histories, most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting or introgression, processes that can make the genealogy of mammalian genomes complex.
These unexpected results have major implications for the understanding of evolution in general, because the evolution of even some higher level taxa such as mammalian orders may sometimes not be interpreted as a simple bifurcating pattern.
Systematic revision of the American taxa belonging to the genera Alloblackburneus Bordat, 2009, and Blackburneus Schmidt, 1913, with description of seven new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae)
Robert D. Gordon
- The American species belonging to the genera Alloblackburneus Bordat and Blackburneus Schmidt
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) are redescribed and figured. Seven new species are described:
Alloblackburneus guadalajarae, A. ibanezbernali; Blackburneus amazonicus, B. sanfilippoi, B. surinamensis, B.
teposcolulaensis, B. thomasi. The neotype of Scarabaeus rubeolus Palisot de Beauvois, 1809 is designated. The
lectotype of Blackburneus argentinensis (Schmidt, 1909) and of Blackburneus laxepunctatus (Schmidt, 1910) are
designated. The following new combinations are proposed: Alloblackburneus aegrotus (Horn, 1870);
Alloblackburneus cavidomus (Brown, 1927); Alloblackburneus cynomysi (Brown, 1927); Alloblackburneus fordi (Gordon,
1974); Alloblackburneus geomysi (Cartwright, 1939); Alloblackburneus lentus (Horn, 1870); Alloblackburneus
rubeolus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1805); Alloblackburneus saylori (Hinton, 1934); Alloblackburneus tenuistriatus (Horn,
1887); Alloblackburneus troglodytes (Hubbard, 1894).
Goethe-Spektrum : das Mitarbeitermagazin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ; 4/11
The first vouchered milliped records for Prince Edward Island and additional new records from the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Arthropoda: Diplopoda)
Rowland M. Shelley
Mary E. Smith
- Four milliped species, substantiated by preserved voucher samples, are reported from Prince Edward
Island, Canada. All are introduced European species that now occur widely in both Canada and the United States,
and the panglobal Asian paradoxosomatid, Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847), is listed as probable. Choneiulus
palmatus (Némec, 1895) (Julida: Blaniulidae) is newly recorded from New Brunswick, and four representatives
of the Julidae are cited from Nova Scotia. Discovery of Cylindroiulus punctatus (Leach, 1815) (Julidae) in this
province constitutes the second record from both Canada and North America, the other being in Newfoundland.