The effect of the dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0530 on Philadelphia positive leukaemia cell lines
Patricia Mambou Gwanmesia
Oliver Gerhard Ottmann
- Background Imatinib mesylate, a selective inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase, is efficacious in treating chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, most advanced-phase CML and Ph+ ALL patients relapse on Imatinib therapy. Several mechanisms of refractoriness have been reported, including the activation of the Src-family kinases (SFK). Here, we investigated the biological effect of the new specific dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0530 on Ph+ leukaemic cells. Methods Cell lines used included BV173 (CML in myeloid blast crisis), SEM t(4;11), Ba/F3 (IL-3 dependent murine pro B), p185Bcr-Abl infected Ba/F3 cells, p185Bcr-Abl mutant infected Ba/F3 cells, SupB15 (Ph+ ALL) and Imatinib resistant SupB15 (RTSupB15) (Ph+ ALL) cells. Cells were exposed to AZD0530 and Imatinib. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, survival and signalling pathways were assessed by dye exclusion, flow cytometry and Western blotting respectively. Results AZD0530 specifically inhibited the growth of, and induced apoptosis in CML and Ph+ ALL cells in a dose dependent manner, but showed only marginal effects on Ph- ALL cells. Resistance to Imatinib due to the mutation Y253F in p185Bcr-Abl was overcome by AZD0530. Combination of AZD0530 and Imatinib showed an additive inhibitory effect on the proliferation of CML BV173 cells but not on Ph+ ALL SupB15 cells. An ongoing transphosphorylation was demonstrated between SFKs and Bcr-Abl. AZD0530 significantly down-regulated the activation of survival signalling pathways in Ph+ cells, resistant or sensitive to Imatinib, with the exception of the RTSupB15. Conclusion Our results indicate that AZD0530 targets both Src and Bcr-Abl kinase activity and reduces the leukaemic maintenance by Bcr-Abl.
Taurolidine reduces the tumor stimulating cytokine interleukin-1beta in patients with resectable gastrointestinal cancer : a multicentre prospective randomized trial
Carsten Nils Gutt
Joachim M. Müller
Christoph A. Jacobi
- Background The effect of additional treatment strategies with antineoplastic agents on intraperitoneal tumor stimulating interleukin levels are unclear. Taurolidine and Povidone-iodine have been mainly used for abdominal lavage in Germany and Europe. Methods In the settings of a multicentre (three University Hospitals) prospective randomized controlled trial 120 patients were randomly allocated to receive either 0.5% taurolidine/2,500 IU heparin (TRD) or 0.25% povidone-iodine (control) intraperitoneally for resectable colorectal, gastric or pancreatic cancers. Due to the fact that IL-1beta (produced by macrophages) is preoperatively indifferent in various gastrointestinal cancer types our major outcome criterion was the perioperative (overall) level of IL-1beta in peritoneal fluid. Results Cytokine values were significantly lower after TRD lavage for IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10. Perioperative complications did not differ. The median follow-up was 50.0 months. The overall mortality rate (28 vs. 25, p = 0.36), the cancer-related death rate (17 vs. 19, p = .2), the local recurrence rate (7 vs. 12, p = .16), the distant metastasis rate (13 vs. 18, p = 0.2) as well as the time to relapse were not statistically significant different. Conclusion Reduced cytokine levels might explain a short term antitumorigenic intraperitoneal effect of TRD. But, this study analyzed different types of cancer. Therefore, we set up a multicentre randomized trial in patients undergoing curative colorectal cancer resection. Trial registration : ISRCTN66478538
QPRT: a potential marker for follicular thyroid carcinoma including minimal invasive variant : a gene expression, RNA and immunohistochemical study
- Background The differential diagnosis between follicular thyroid adenoma and minimal invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma is often difficult for several reasons. One major aspect is the lack of typical cytological criteria in well differentiated specimens. New marker molecules, shown by poly- or monoclonal antibodies proved helpful. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of 12 follicular thyroid tumours (4 follicular adenomas, 4 minimal invasive follicular carcinomas and 4 widely invasive follicular carcinomas), followed by immunohistochemical staining of 149 cases. The specificity of the antibody was validated by western blot analysis Results In gene expression analysis QPRT was detected as differently expressed between follicular thyroid adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. QPRT protein could be detected by immunohistochemistry in 65% of follicular thyroid carcinomas including minimal invasive variant and only 22% of follicular adenomas. Conclusion Consequently, QPRT is a potential new marker for the immunohistochemical screening of follicular thyroid nodules.
Heat shock protein-90-alpha, a prolactin-STAT5 target gene identified in breast cancer cells, is involved in apoptosis regulation
Christine T. Parusel
Carrie S. Shemanko
- Introduction The prolactin-Janus-kinase-2-signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (JAK2-STAT5) pathway is essential for the development and functional differentiation of the mammary gland. The pathway also has important roles in mammary tumourigenesis. Prolactin regulated target genes are not yet well defined in tumour cells, and we undertook, to the best of our knowledge, the first large genetic screen of breast cancer cells treated with or without exogenous prolactin. We hypothesise that the identification of these genes should yield insights into the mechanisms by which prolactin participates in cancer formation or progression, and possibly how it regulates normal mammary gland development. Methods We used subtractive hybridisation to identify a number of prolactin-regulated genes in the human mammary carcinoma cell line SKBR3. Northern blotting analysis and luciferase assays identified the gene encoding heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90A) as a prolactin-JAK2-STAT5 target gene, whose function was characterised using apoptosis assays. Results We identified a number of new prolactin-regulated genes in breast cancer cells. Focusing on HSP90A, we determined that prolactin increased HSP90A mRNA in cancerous human breast SKBR3 cells and that STAT5B preferentially activated the HSP90A promoter in reporter gene assays. Both prolactin and its downstream protein effector, HSP90α, promote survival, as shown by apoptosis assays and by the addition of the HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), in both untransformed HC11 mammary epithelial cells and SKBR3 breast cancer cells. The constitutive expression of HSP90A, however, sensitised differentiated HC11 cells to starvation-induced wild-type p53-independent apoptosis. Interestingly, in SKBR3 breast cancer cells, HSP90α promoted survival in the presence of serum but appeared to have little effect during starvation. Conclusions In addition to identifying new prolactin-regulated genes in breast cancer cells, we found that prolactin-JAK2-STAT5 induces expression of the HSP90A gene, which encodes the master chaperone of cancer. This identifies one mechanism by which prolactin contributes to breast cancer. Increased expression of HSP90A in breast cancer is correlated with increased cell survival and poor prognosis and HSP90α inhibitors are being tested in clinical trials as a breast cancer treatment. Our results also indicate that HSP90α promotes survival depending on the cellular conditions and state of cellular transformation.
Bradykinin B2 receptors of dendritic cells, acting as sensors of kinins proteolytically released by Trypanosoma cruzi, are critical for the development of protective type-1 responses
Ana Carolina Monteiro
Luciana Barros de Arruda
João B. Pesquero
Herbert B. Tanowitz
- Although the concept that dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens through the engagement of Toll-like receptors is widely accepted, we recently suggested that immature DCs might sense kinin-releasing strains of Trypanosoma cruzi through the triggering of G-protein-coupled bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R). Here we report that C57BL/6.B2R-/- mice infected intraperitoneally with T. cruzi display higher parasitemia and mortality rates as compared to B2R+/+ mice. qRT-PCR revealed a 5-fold increase in T. cruzi DNA (14 d post-infection [p.i.]) in B2R-/- heart, while spleen parasitism was negligible in both mice strains. Analysis of recall responses (14 d p.i.) showed high and comparable frequencies of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen of B2R-/- and wild-type mice. However, production of IFN-gamma by effector T cells isolated from B2R-/- heart was significantly reduced as compared with wild-type mice. As the infection continued, wild-type mice presented IFN-gamma-producing (CD4+CD44+ and CD8+CD44+) T cells both in the spleen and heart while B2R-/- mice showed negligible frequencies of such activated T cells. Furthermore, the collapse of type-1 immune responses in B2R-/- mice was linked to upregulated secretion of IL-17 and TNF-alpha by antigen-responsive CD4+ T cells. In vitro analysis of tissue culture trypomastigote interaction with splenic CD11c+ DCs indicated that DC maturation (IL-12, CD40, and CD86) is controlled by the kinin/B2R pathway. Further, systemic injection of trypomastigotes induced IL-12 production by CD11c+ DCs isolated from B2R+/+ spleen, but not by DCs from B2R-/- mice. Notably, adoptive transfer of B2R+/+ CD11c+ DCs (intravenously) into B2R-/- mice rendered them resistant to acute challenge, rescued development of type-1 immunity, and repressed TH17 responses. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of B2R, a DC sensor of endogenous maturation signals, is critically required for development of acquired resistance to T. cruzi infection. Author Summary: Antibodies and IFN-gamma-producing effector T cells are essential for the immune control of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the intracellular protozoa that causes human Chagas disease. Despite the potency of anti-parasite immunity, the parasites are not cleared from their intracellular niches. Instead, a low grade chronic infection prevails, provoking severe immunopathology in the myocardium. Although it is well established that innate sentinel cells sense T. cruzi through receptors for microbial structures, such as Toll-like receptors, it remained unclear whether endogenous inflammatory signals also contribute to the development of adaptive immunity. The present study was motivated by awareness that T. cruzi trypomastigotes (extracellular infective forms) are equipped with proteases that liberate the pro-inflammatory bradykinin peptide from an internal segment of kininogens. Here we demonstrate that splenic dendritic cells (DCs), the antigen-presenting cells that coordinate the adaptive branch of immunity in lymphoid tissues, are potently activated via G-protein-coupled bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R). Analysis of the outcome of infection in B2R-knockout mice revealed that the mutant mice developed a typical susceptible phenotype, owing to impaired development of IFN-gamma-producing effector T cells. Notably, the immune dysfunction of B2R-knockout mice was corrected upon cell transfer of wild-type DCs, thus linking development of protective T cells to DCs' sensing of endogenous danger signals (kinins) released by trypomastigotes.
Modeling the free energy landscape of biomolecules via dihedral angle principal component analysis of molecular dynamics simulations
- This work presents a contribution to the literature on methods in search of lowdimensional models that yield insight into the equilibrium and kinetic behavior of peptides and small proteins. A deep understanding of various methods for projecting the sampled configurations of molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a low-dimensional free energy landscape is acquired. Furthermore low-dimensional dynamic models for the conformational dynamics of biomolecules in reduced dimensionality are presented. As exemplary systems, mainly short alanine chains are studied. Due to their size they allow for performing long simulations. They are simple, yet nontrivial systems, as due to their flexibility they are rapidly interconverting conformers. Understanding these polypeptide chains in great detail is of considerable interest for getting insight in the process of protein folding. For example, K. Dill et al. conclude in their review  about the protein folding problem that "the once intractable Levinthal puzzle now seems to have a very simple answer: a protein can fold quickly and solve its large global optimization puzzle simply through piecewise solutions of smaller component puzzles".
Structure-function analysis of membrane proteins by infrared spectroscopy : Porin OmpF, Porin OmpG and Betaine transporter BetP
- This study addresses the structure-function relationships of three essential membrane proteins: Porin from Paracoccus denitrificans, Porin OmpG from Eschericia coli and BetP from Corynobacterium glutamicum using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) techniques. The structure of porin from P. denitrificans is known for more than a decade; however, the mechanism for loss of functionality together with the monomerization was not clear. In this study we have addressed the role of lipids for the functionality of porin using FT-IR. OmpF porin was found to interact with the lipid molecules via the aromatic girdles surrounding the protein for functionality. In this study, molecular bonds and groups of the lipids were established as reporter groups probing at different depths of the bilayer in order to understand the interaction partner of the aromatic girdles of porins. Monomerization of the trimeric assembly of OmpF porin reconstituted in lipids is induced by increasing the temperature. Porin (OmpF) was found to be extremely stable: The secondary structure of the protein was unaltered up to the temperature-induced main transition, around 80-90 °C, above which it is denatured. However, the interaction of the aromatic girdle with the lipid molecules exhibited distinct changes at much lower temperature values (40 - 50°) where, according to the previous functional studies, monomerization and the loss of function occurs. The results are compared with OmpG porin from E.coli, for which the functional unit is a monomer. The aromatic girdle-lipid interaction was monitored by the tyrosine aromatic ring C=C vibrational mode, a universal marker for the protein stability and interaction. We have also found that the aromatic girdles of porins are interacting with the interfacial region of the lipid bilayer instead of lipid headgroups. Lipid-protein interaction was found to be not only essential for the structural stability, but also for the functionality of OmpF porin. We have also studied the structural properties of OmpG from E.coli. The structure of OmpG at two pH values has been resolved using X-ray crystallography and the channel has been proposed to attain different states at different pH values as closed (pH < 5.5) and open (pH >7.5). This study, using IR spectroscopy, revealed that the pH-induced opening and closing of the channel is reflected by the frequency shifts of the ? sheet structure. OmpG has more rigid ? barrel properties upon opening of the channel. IR spectral analysis revealed multiple ? sheet signals with different hydrogen bond strengths. This enabled us to monitor the formation of hydrogen bridges between the extracellular loops upon opening of the channel. The conclusion that OmpG porin having two states at different pH values was also confirmed by the three mutants where the role of the histidine pair (H231 & H261) and loop 6 has been addressed. Temperature-profiling of the wild type (WT) protein and the mutants did not show pH dependent structural stability differences in detergent solution. However, the WT protein was found to be more stable in the open form in 2D crystals than the closed form. Reconstitution into lipids has increased the transition temperature value by ~20 °C in the closed state and ~25 °C in the open state. Therefore we conclude that the open and closed state of OmpG has structural stability differences that are only revealed in the lipid environment. A comparison of the transition temperature values of OmpG WT and the mutants suggested that the hydrogen bond network among S218-H231-H261-D267, together with the formation of 12 residue-long ?-sheet contributes to the structural stability of the open channel. In the process of closing and opening of the channel, the globular structure of the protein remains mainly unchanged, while there are changes in the side chain moieties. In addition to the role of the histidine pair and the loop L6, in situ opening/closing experiments showed that the negatively charged amino acids, i.e. Asp and Glu, and Arg residues also play an active role; possibly by interacting with each other inside the pore lumen. Therefore it could be concluded that the closure of the channel at acidic pH values is not only via closing the channel entrance by loop 6, but also via changing the electric potential inside the lumen due to the different states of charged amino acids in order to effectively block the gateway. BetP from C.glutamicum attains an active and inactive state in order to adjust its glycine betaine uptake rate to the osmotic conditions that the cell encounters. The structure of BetP is not yet available. The WT protein exhibited structural differences in the presence of excess K+, which is one of the activation conditions. In 2D crystals, increasing the ionic strength to 700 mM K+ was shown to induce changes in the ?-helical moiety with contributions from the ester groups and one Tyr residue using ATR-FTIR. An increase in ionic strength to 220 mM K+ was found to be the threshold value of potassium concentration ([K+]) where the protein exhibits structural alterations in detergent solution. The determined [K+] values are in good agreement with the previous functional studies. However, there are differences in the activation profile of BetP in 2D crystals and in detergent solution, which points out that the lipids are involved in the conformational transition from the inactive to the active state and their absence can lead to different structural properties. BetP WT was found to have ~65% alpha-helix, ~25% random coil and ~10% turn structure in detergent solution. In the presence of excess K+, the WT protein is found to adapt more unordered structure. Secondary structure analysis of the mutants revealed that both the N- and C-terminus are in ?-helical conformation. Reconstitution of WT protein in 2D crystals increased the main transition (denaturation) temperature value from ~62 °C to ~85 °C, a clear indication that the protein is more stable in lipid environment. Temperature-profiling of the two forms of the WT protein revealed that the structural breakdown is preceeded by monomerization of the trimeric assembly. Comparing the two forms of the WT protein and the mutant BetA, we conclude that the oligomeric status is stabilized via the interactions among hydrophilic regions involving the N terminus. H/D exchange and activation with excess K+ in D2O-buffer revealed that activation of the protein involves the interaction of Arg and Asp/Glu residues in the cytoplasmic region of the protein. BetP WT and the two mutants tested, i.e. BetA and BetP?C45, showed differences in protein packing upon activation. The WT protein and BetP?C45 mutant also show changes in the hydrogen bonding properties of turns. Since BetA does not show such a property in activation, we conclude that the N-terminus interacts with the loops in the inactive state via the interaction of charged amino acids for the WT protein and that this interaction is altered during the activation. It could be argued that the protein packing is affected via the changes in turns upon activation. We also have found experimental evidence that one Tyr residue has different orientations in the active and inactive state of BetP. Based on the previous functional studies, it could be one of the five Tyr residues in the cytoplasmic region of the protein (in loop 3, 6, 7 or C-terminus). The mutant BetP?C45, on the other hand, showed fewer differences between the active and inactive state conditions and based on the H/D exchange rates, the mutant shows the properties of an active WT protein, proving that the C-terminal truncation impairs the conformational transition between the active and inactive states.
Microscopic modelling of correlated low-dimensional systems
- The characterization of microscopic properties in correlated low-dimensional materials is a challenging problem due to the effects of dimensionality and the interplay between the many different lattice and electronic degrees of freedom. Competition between these factors gives rise to interesting and exotic magnetic phenomena. An understanding of how these phenomena are driven by these degrees of freedom can be used for rational design of new materials, to control and manipulate these degrees of freedom in order to obtain desired properties. In this work, we study these effects in materials with small exchange interaction between the magnetic ions such as metal-organic and inorganic dilute compounds. We overcome the dfficulties in studying these kind of materials by combining classical and quantum mechanical ab initio methods and many-body theory methods in an effective theoretical approach. To treat metal-organic compounds we elaborate a novel two-step methodology which allows one to include quantum effects while reducing the computational cost. We show that our approach is an effective procedure, leading at each step, to additional insights into the essential features of the phenomena and materials under study. Our investigation is divided into two parts, the first one concerning the exploration of the fundamental physical properties of novel Cu(II) hydroquinone-based compounds. We have studied two representatives of this family, a polymeric system Cu(II)-2,5-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,4-dihydroxybenzene (CuCCP) and a coupled system Cu2S2F6N8O12 (TK91). The second part concerns the study of magnetic phenomena associated with the interplay between different energy scales and dimensionality in zero-, one- and two-dimensional compounds. In the zero-dimensional case, we have performed a comprehensive study of Cu4OCl6L4 with L=diallylcyanamide=NC-N-(CH2-CH=CH2)2 (Cu4OCl6daca4). Interpretations of the magnetic properties for this tetrameric compound have been controversial and inconsistent. From our studies, we conclude that the common models usually applied to this and other representatives in the same family of cluster systems fail to provide a consistent description of their low temperature magnetic properties and we thus postulate that in such systems it is necessary to take into account quantum fluctuations due to possible frustrated behavior. In the one-dimensional case, we studied polymeric Fe(II)-triazole compounds, which are of special relevance due to the possibility of inducing a spin transition between low and high spin state by applying a external perturbation. A long standing problem has been a satisfactory microscopic explanation of this large cooperative phenomenon. A lack of X-ray data has been one mitigating reason for the absence of microscopic studies. In this work, we present a novel approach to the understanding of the microscopic mechanism of spin crossover in such systems and show that in these kind of compounds magnetic exchange between high spin Fe(II) centers plays an important role. The correct description of the underlying physics in many materials is often hindered by the presence of anisotropies. To illustrate this difficulty, we have studied a two dimensional dilute compound K2V3O8 which exhibits an unusual spin reorientation effect when applying magnetic fields. While this effect can be understood when considering anisotropies in the system, it is not sufficient to reproduce experimental observations. Based on our studies of the electronic and magnetic properties in this system, we predict an extra exchange interaction and the presence of an additional magnetic moment at the non-magnetic V site. This sheds a new light into the controversial recent experimental data for the magnetic properties of this material.
From knowledge warehouse to public paradise : 21st century libraries ; a symposium in Frankfurt
- Over the last ten years, the old world of print has been pushed aside by a complex hybrid universe of media types. This has led to an expanded mission for libraries, while at the same time raising questions about their traditional architectural form.
Global security in an age of religious extremism