Is part of the Bibliography
16O( gamma ,p) 15N reaction with linearly polarized photons
R. K. M. Schneider
U. E. P. Berg
- The 16O ( gamma ,p0) reaction has been studied with linearly polarized bremsstrahlung photons in and below the giant E1 resonance. The parity of the absorbed radiation was determined from the observed azimuthal asymmetry of the emitted protons. Combined with unpolarized measurements the polarized results determine the proton decay amplitudes of the M1 resonance at Ex=16.2 MeV in 16O. The shape of the unpolarized 16O ( gamma ,p3) angular distribution in the giant E1 resonance was derived from the measured analyzing power. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 16O( gamma ,p), E=15-25 MeV; measured analyzing power theta =90° linearly polarized bremsstrahlung; 16O dipole levels deduced pi ; 16.2 MeV 1+ resonance deduced p0 decay amplitudes; 16O GEDR deduced p3 angular distribution.
Global observables and secondary interactions in central Au+Au reactions at sqrt[s]=200A GeV
Steffen A. Bass
Larissa V. Bravina
Eugene E. Zabrodin
- The ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD) is used to study global observables in central reactions of Au+Au at sqrt[s]=200A GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Strong stopping governed by massive particle production is predicted if secondary interactions are taken into account. The underlying string dynamics and the early hadronic decoupling implies only small transverse expansion rates. However, rescattering with mesons is found to act as a source of pressure leading to additional flow of baryons and kaons, while cooling down pions.
11 262 keV 1+ state in 20Ne
U. E. P. Berg
- The excitation energy of the lowest 1+, T=1 state in 20Ne, which is important for parity nonconservation studies, has been determined in a photon scattering experiment to be 11 262.3 ± 1.9 keV. Values for the gamma -ray branching of this level to the ground state and to the first 2+ level in 20Ne are 84 ± 5% and 16 ± 5%, respectively. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 20Ne( gamma , gamma ), E gamma <18 MeV, bremsstrahlung; measured E gamma , gamma branching. Ne natural targets.
Emission patterns in central and peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions
H. H. Gutbrod
W. G. Meyer
A. M. Poskanzer
C. H. King
Nguyen Van Sen
Gary D. Westfall
- Proton emission in relativistic nuclear collisions is examined for events of low and high multiplicity, corresponding to large and small impact parameters. Peripheral reactions exhibit distributions of protons in agreement with spectator-participant decay modes. Central collisions of equal-size nuclei are dominated by the formation and decay of a fireball system. Central collisions of light projectiles with heavy targets exhibit an enhancement in sideward emission which is predicted by recent hydrodynamical calculations.
Contribution of alpha cluster exchange to elastic and inelastic 16O + 20Ne scattering
D. L. Hendrie
C. F. Maguire
W. F. W. Schneider
D. K. Scott
- Angular distributions for elastic and inelastic transitions in 20Ne + 16O scattering have been measured at E(20Ne)=50 MeV. For the 0+, 2+, and 4+ members of the 20Ne ground-state rotational band, the angular distributions exhibit pronounced backward peaking characteristic of an alpha -cluster exchange mechanism. The analysis of the ground-state transition in the first-order elastic transfer model yields no satisfactory fit although microscopic cluster form factors and full recoil corrections are employed. A coupled channels calculation for the 0+, 2+, and 4+ transitions reveals very strong coupling effects, indicating that the coherent superposition of first-order optical model and distorted-wave Born-approximation amplitudes may not be an adequate model for these reactions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 16O(20Ne, 16O) and 16O(20Ne, 20Ne), elastic and inelastic transfer; E=50MeV; measured sigma (Ef , theta ); optical model + DWBA, and CCBA analyses.
Excitation of Rotational Bands in 40Ca Observed in the Reaction 36Ar(16O, 12C)
- Levels strongly populated in the reaction 36Ar(16O, 12C)40Ca are compared with predictions for the lowest (oblate) 4p-4h rotational band in 40Ca.
Anomalous Backward alpha Scattering
- The elastic alpha scattering to backward angles has been studied for 40,42,44,48Ca between 40.7 and 72.3 MeV. The cross sections for 40Ca are larger than those for the higher isotopes up to the highest energies. They show backward increases that disappear above 50 MeV. The enhancement factor for 40Ca over 42,44Ca varies smoothly with energy. 48Ca does also show a backward cross-section enhancement over 42,44Ca. alpha -cluster rotational bands in the 44Ti compound state, four-nucleon correlations in 40Ca, and the l-dependent optical model are discussed as approaches to understand the anomaly. The rotator model appears to agree qualitatively with the experimental data. It involves rotational bands extending at least up to J=16 in 44Ti.
Simulation of denitrification and ozone loss for the Arctic winter 2002/2003
Geoffrey C. Toon
- We present simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) for the Arctic winter 2002/2003. We integrated a Lagrangian denitrification scheme into the three-dimensional version of CLaMS that calculates the growth and sedimentation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles along individual particle trajectories. From those, we derive the HNO3 downward flux resulting from different particle nucleation assumptions. The simulation results show a clear vertical redistribution of total inorganic nitrogen (NOy), with a maximum vortex average permanent NOy removal of over 5 ppb in late December between 500 and 550 K and a corresponding increase of NOy of over 2 ppb below about 450 K. The simulated vertical redistribution of NOy is compared with balloon observations by MkIV and in-situ observations from the high altitude aircraft Geophysica. Assuming a globally uniform NAT particle nucleation rate of 3.4·10−6 cm−3 h−1 in the model, the observed denitrification is well reproduced. In the investigated winter 2002/2003, the denitrification has only moderate impact (<=10%) on the simulated vortex average ozone loss of about 1.1 ppm near the 460 K level. At higher altitudes, above 600 K potential temperature, the simulations show significant ozone depletion through NOx-catalytic cycles due to the unusual early exposure of vortex air to sunlight.
Midlatitude ClO during the maximum atmospheric chlorine burden: in situ balloon measurements and model simulations
- Chlorine monoxide (ClO) plays a key role in stratospheric ozone loss processes at midlatitudes. We present two balloonborne in situ measurements of ClO conducted in northern hemisphere midlatitudes during the period of the maximum of total inorganic chlorine loading in the atmosphere. Both ClO measurements were conducted on board the TRIPLE balloon payload, launched in November 1996 in Le´on, Spain, and in May 1999 in Aire sur l’Adour, France. For both flights a ClO daylight and night time vertical profile could be derived over an altitude range of approximately 15–31 km. ClO mixing ratios are compared to model simulations performed with the photochemical box model version of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). Simulations along 24-h backward trajectories were performed to study the diurnal variation of ClO in the midlatitude lower stratosphere. Model simulations for the flight launched in Aire sur l’Adour 1999 show a good agreement with the ClO measurements. For the flight launched in Le´on 1996, a similar good agreement is found, except at around ~ 650 K potential temperature (~26km altitude). However, a tendency is found that for solar zenith angles greater than 86°–87° the simulated ClO mixing ratios substantially overestimate measured ClO by approximately a factor of 2.5 or more for both flights. Therefore we conclude that no indication can be deduced from the presented ClO measurements that substantial uncertainties exist in midlatitude chlorine chemistry of the stratosphere. An exception is the situation at solar zenith angles greater than 86°–87° where model simulations substantial overestimate ClO observations.
Shell-Structure Effect on Elastic alpha Scattering
- Back-angle enhancements of elastic alpha -scattering cross sections have been observed for nuclei at the ends of the 1p, 2s-1d, and f7 / 2 shells. Strong reduction of this enhancement occurs if excess neutrons enter the next open major shell. The results are discussed in terms of intermediate alpha structure.